Agriculture is a very diverse type of farming system. There are different types of categories and subcategories depending upon the factor that you are studying. One of the category is the use of natural system or organic system.
What is organic farming?
Organic farming is the subcategory of agricultural farming. In this type of farming, there is no use of synthetic inputs like; chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and genetically modified organisms (GMO’s). The main concept behind this type of farming is to produce crops and vegetables in natural and sustainable ways. The produce should be eco-friendly (with no harm to the environment) and human friendly (no harmful effect on human life).
According to the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Moments (IFOAM) the definition of organic agriculture is
“Organic Agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems, and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic Agriculture combines tradition, innovation, and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and good quality of life for all involved.”
TYPES OF ORGANIC FARMING
There are different types of the organic farming depending upon the method and nature of input is you using. which are mentioned blew
Pure organic farming
Pure organic farming is the type of organic farming in which we use pure organic origin things. We use organic manure and organic fertilizer instead of synthetic fertilizer. Synthetic pesticide replaced with bio-pesticide to reduce the incidence of the harmful ingredient into the human food
Integrated organic farming System
This type of organic farming vary from pure organic farming due to it involves modern techniques and technologies that make more efficient and easier the work and make more food. The integrated organic farming system involves the use of integrated pest and nutrients management. Integrated organic farming systems do not use inorganic pesticide and chemicals.
Semi organic farming
This type of farming involves organic farming with minimal use of synthetic fertilizer and pesticides. Sometime some pests and diseases are not controlled by the organic pesticide then there is a control use of the inorganic pesticide. Hence this type of organic farming is called semi organic farming.
PQNK-The best type of organic farming system
PQNK (paidar qudarti nizam-e-kashtkari) whose meaning in English is “Sustainable Natural Agriculture System”. This system is developed by Mr. Asif Sharif who is the founder of this system. This system is fully organic with no pesticide and fertilizer, a rising organic system in Pakistan and India. A huge quantity and diversity of farmers use this system because of the very low cost of production. There are fewer requirements for seed and water in this type of system. There is no use of any kind of inputs like; fertilizers either organic or inorganic in nature. PQNK even not use bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticide which are organic. Mr. Asif sharif mentioned in his lecture more focus on these things which are the main principles of the PQNK
- Leveling of soil
- Preparation of raised bed
- Mulching of the beds
- Use of the precision seeder
- Irrigation of furrow, not the bed
This system totally depends upon these five principles. This type of organic farming system is very promising in nature as it increases the profitability of farmers and decreases the cost of production. The produce is very high quality and has the potential to export to the world market. PQNK has the potential to replace the current synthetic agricultural system.
METHODS AND TECHNIQUES USE IN ORGANIC FARMING
Crop diversity or polyculture
In this method of organic farming, different types of plants allow growing together, but in the conventional method only one types of plant are allowed to grow on the same land. Grow more than one type of crop on the same land is called polyculture. Polyculture increases the efficiency of the organic farming system.
Weed management in organic farming
In the system, weed management can easily be done due to polyculture, tillage operation and mulching techniques of organic farming. Polyculture allows for growing different types of plants and decreasing the growth of the weeds. Tillage operations minimize the germination and growth of the weed plant. Mulching not allow the weed to grow by covering the soil and avoiding penetration of the light into the soil. Weed management involves the use of the cultural method, biological method, physical method and chemical method without synthetic weedicide.
Covering of soil with the organic or inorganic material is called the mulching. Mulching is done to regulate the temperature, suppress the weeds and moisture regulation. There are different types of mulching. Mulching is very good techniques against erosion of the soil.
If you want to read about mulching then click here for full topic of organic mulch.
It is the use of the rich nutrients organic matter. At garden stage you can add leaf compost but in large scale green manuring is the best option to replace it. Compost is made up of leaf and other organic material.
It is the good method of the restoring the nutrients to the soil. In green manuring crop when it reaches to the full green stage incorporated in the soil. It is the best techniques use in the organic farming to replace the fertilization. It also improves the fertility of the soil.
It is the methods of the organic farming in which different types of crop are grow according to the different season and ecological zone. Selection of type of crop which have to grown is very essential. This leads to regulate the nutrient management in organic farming.
It is the technique in which soil management is done by providing a favorable condition for microorganisms for the proper functioning of the soil. Different types of microorganisms are used like bacteria and fungi which are use full for the revival of the soil. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are used for fixing nitrogen and fungi degrade the non-available element into available nutrients.
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